This website is written by experts in Pharmaceutical Industry Manufacturing Research and Development and Regulatory Affairs Since 2008 and in 2011 Awarded as one of top 10 websites across world in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Regulatory
USFDA WHO GMP Guidelines Pharmaceutical Regulations Information about Pharma Quality Managment System Validations Process Validation Cleaning Validation Equipment Qualification Equipment Process Validation Computer System Validation Sterile Product Manufacturing Guidelines Media fill guideline Aseptic Techniques in Sterile dosage form Clean Room Clean Room Classification Guidelines on Area Qualification HVAC AHU HEPA Filter HEPA Filter integrity testing and leak test

Tuesday, June 22, 2010

Antibiotics Defination and classification.

Antibiotics Definition and classification.
Definition:
Antibiotics is a group of drugs or substance or compounds which inhibits or completely stops growth or kills  bacteria , fungi or yeasts or protozoa , when present in very minute concentration , these are mostly metabolites produced by microorganisms which antagonises the microbial growth it self if present in very low concentration.
Most of the antibiotics are modified struculaly to alter its pharmacokinetic or stability and antimicrobial properties so as to produce a most effective antibiotic, also most of them can be synthesized in laboratories.

See also antibiotic resitance and drug resistance mechanism

Classification of Antibiotics
Aminoglycosides :
Works against infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella specialy Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Effective against Aerobic bacterias
Mode of Action:Binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit (some work by binding to the 50S subunit), inhibiting the translocation of the peptidyl-tRNA
Amikacin
Gentamicin
Kanamycin
Neomycin
Netilmicin
Tobramycin
Paromomycin
Streptomycin

Ansamycins: Antitumor antibiotics
Geldanamycin
Herbimycin
Carbacephem:
Mode of action:prevents bacterial cell division by inhibiting cell wall synthesis.
Loracarbef
Carbapenems:Bactericidal for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms and therefore useful for empiric broad-spectrum antibacterial 
Mode of action :Inhibition of cell wall synthesis
Ertapenem
Doripenem
Imipenem/Cilastatin
Meropenem
Cephalosporins:
Mode of action :
Inhibits the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
Cefadroxil
Cefazolin
Cefalotin
Cefalexin
Cefaclor
Cefamandole
Cefoxitin
Cefprozil
Cefuroxime
Cefixime
Cefdinir
Cefditoren
Cefoperazone
Cefotaxime
Cefpodoxime
Ceftazidime
Ceftibuten
Ceftizoxime
Ceftriaxone
Cefepime
Ceftobiprole
Glycopeptides class of antibiotics
Mode of action : Peptidoglycan synthesis inhibition
Teicoplanin
Vancomycin
Telavancin
Lincosamides class of antibiotics
Mode of action :Blocks 50S subunit of and protein synthesis
Clindamycin
Lincomycin
Macrolides class of antibiotics
Mode of action :
irreversible bloking of 50s microbial ribosome, inhibit translation of tRNA and inhibit protien synthesis.
Azithromycin
Clarithromycin
Dirithromycin
Erythromycin
Roxithromycin
Troleandomycin
Telithromycin
Spectinomycin
Monobactams class of antibioticsMode of action :inhibits synthesis of peptidoglycan and cell wall
Aztreonam
Penicillins class of antibiotics
Mode of action :inhibits synthesis of peptidoglycan and cell wall
Amoxicillin
Ampicillin
Azlocillin
Carbenicillin
Cloxacillin
Dicloxacillin
Flucloxacillin
Mezlocillin
Meticillin
Nafcillin
Oxacillin
Penicillin G
Penicillin V
Piperacillin
Temocillin
Ticarcillin
Polypeptides class of antibiotics 
Mode of action :
Inhibition of isoprenyl pyrophosphate, one of the molecule responsible for building peptidoglycan synthesis of bacterial cell wall
Bacitracin
Colistin
Polymyxin B
Quinolones class of antibiotics
Mode of action :
inhibit the bacterial DNA gyrase enzyme and inhibit DNA replication.
Ciprofloxacin
Enoxacin
Gatifloxacin
Levofloxacin
Lomefloxacin
Moxifloxacin
Nalidixic acid
Norfloxacin
Ofloxacin
Trovafloxacin
Grepafloxacin
Sparfloxacin
Temafloxacin

Sulfonamides class of antibiotics
Mode of action :
Competitive inhibition of bacterial enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase,microbial nuclic acids synthesis is inhibited as microbial folic acid synthesis is inhibited.
Mafenide
Sulfonamidochrysoidine
Sulfacetamide
Sulfadiazine
Silver sulfadiazine
Sulfamethizole
Sulfanilimide
Sulfasalazine
Sulfisoxazole
Trimethoprim
Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (Co-trimoxazole)
Tetracyclines class of antibiotics
Mode of action :
It inhibits binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the mRNA-ribosome there by inhibiting translation process which is an inportant step in protein synthesis .
Demeclocycline
Doxycycline
Minocycline
Oxytetracycline
Tetracycline
Rifamycin
Mode of action :It inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase prevents transcription and protein synthesis.
Rifampin or Rifampicin
Amphenicols class of antibiotics
Mode of action :Inhibits peptidyl transferase to 50S ribosome bacterial subunit
chloramphenicol
Thiamphenicol
Azidamfenicol
Florfenicol.
Cycloserine , is antibiotic derived from cyclisation of serin ,
Mode of action :Inhibits enzyme alanine racemase and  D-alanine ligase


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
What is What is 510(k) Clearances ?
What is 510(k) Clearances, Premarket Notification for medical devices - PMN or 510(k)

Antibiotic resitance and Drug resistance mechanism
Antioxidants food suppliments

Vitamin D Details on FDA cautions on accurate dosage of Vitamin D


What is an antibody? what is monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies?


Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay ELISA

Raido Immuno assay
http://whoguideline.blogspot.com/2010/04/terminalogy-and-their-explanations.html

Pharmaceutical Aseptic Manufacturing Process Terms , Terminology and Definations.

http://whoguideline.blogspot.com/2010/02/pharmaceutical-aseptic-manufacturing.html

Here are some articles which will be useful for you in further understanding of aspects of sterile dosage form manufacturing and regulatory affairs and good manufacturing practice in pharmaceutical industry

Pharmaceutical Validation

Types of validations in pharmaceutical manufacturing


Requirements of documents for validation of sterilisation process

How to investigate OOS out of specification results

Determination of Phenol coeeficient of a disinfectant

Sterility testing

Cleen Room Classification

Time limitations in sterile pharmaceuticals processing

Aspects of validation of manufacturing process in sterile pharmaceuticals

Clinical Trials

Controling Pyrogens in injectable dosage forms

Media fill run process simulation aspects Validation of Aseptic Process and Sterilisation

New Drug Application (NDA) how to make a New Drug Application (NDA) to US FDA

Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) What is ANDA , detaied information about ANDA preparation and submission to US FDA

How to make Investigational New Drug (IND) Application to US FDA

Drug applications submission to us fda Over the counter Drugs OTC drugs

BIOAVAILABILITY AND BIOEQUIVALENCE REQUIREMENTS

Eletronic record in pharmaceutical manufacturing industry

Good manufacturing practice in pharmaceutical industry

Pharmaceutical industry pharmaceutical companies and FDA latest updates

Here is an intresting article on world wide pharmaceutical industry
Article on Pharmaceutical Industry pharmaceutical industry

Here are some interesting articles on Quality assurance systems for pharmaceutical company
1.Quality assurance in pharma industry
2.Quality by designe concept for pharmaceutical industry
3.Quality by designe concept in pharmaceutical industry an  explanation

No comments:

Pharma Guidelines Most Read

.

Readers Visit Number

This website is Authentic Source of Pharmaceutical Guidelines

This website is Authentic Source of Pharmaceutical Guidelines

Pharma Validations Quality Management System USFDA Guidelines WHO GMP Guidelines New Drug Update





This website consist of detail Information about Pharma Guidelines Pharma Regulatory Affairs USFDA Guidelines WHO Guidelines Pharmaceutical Quality Management System Pharma Validations Process Validation Cleaning Validation Equipment Qualification Equipment Process Validation Computer System Validation Sterile Product Manufacturing Guidelines Media fill guideline Aseptic Techniques in Sterile dosage form Clean Room Clean Room Classification Guidelines on Area Qualification HVAC AHU HEPA Filter HEPA Filter integrity testing and leak test