Friday, November 9, 2018

New drug for treatment of flu with novel mode of action can also be used in treatment of Swine Flu

US FDA approves New drug for treatment of Flue baloxavir marboxil with novel mode of action. 

Drug baloxavir marboxil has potential to be useful in treatment of swine flu as well in combination therapy.

For treatment of flu there were two types or there are two classes of drugs.
Flu is caused by influenza virus, after infection person feels very tired and get fever if it is not treated within 24 hours of observation of symptoms, patients condition may worsen, and develop pneumonia.
Until now there were only two types of drugs available to treat flu, including swine flu the most life-threatening form of flu.
Virus infect the human cell by 1) Attaching it self to human cell,
                              2) Enter in to cell release its RNA to form new viral RNA.
                              3) Replicate inside the human cell.
Following drug categories based on the mode of action is formed.

1ST Category of drug is 
Neuraminidase inhibitors:  oseltamivir (Tamiflu) , zanamivir, laninamivir and peramivir.
2nd  Category of drug is 
1.)   M2 protein Inhibitor : (adamantane derivatives).

Neuraminidase inhibitor drugs prevent release of newly formed viral particles of influenza virus in the lifecycle of the virus and disrupts further infection of new cells, these class of drugs do not inhibit the formation new virus inside human cells.
M2 protein Inhibitor drugs work at second level of process of reproduction by inhibiting virus to release its RNA to form new viral RNA. Due to higher degree of resistance development these class of drugs are avoided.
Now after approval of baloxavir marboxil by USFDA a new class of drug is now available which is
Endonuclease inhibitor drugs to treat influenza, including Swine flu and other sever form of flu in combination therapy by combining drug from neuroamidase inhibitors and Endonuclease inhibitors together it will prove lifesaving drug combination. Patients stage of infection and age and overall level of infection should be considered before combination therapy it will work best in case the patient is treated in early stage of infection, treatment with drugs should be done under hospitalised condition.
First two class of drug has its drawbacks Neuraminidase inhibitors has limited benefit over its side effects and adamantane derivatives has greater risk of developing resistance, hence Endonuclease inhibitor drugs third class of drugs are of great importance.
Baloxavir marboxil
This drug inhibits enzyme endonuclease which is required for formation of new virus (New virus RNA) prevent reproduction or formation of new virus particle and if combined with any of one class of drug will be very effective in providing lifesaving treatment for against influenza viral infections like H1N1 H5N1.
What is influenza or flu.
Flu is caused by infection of influenza virus, Influenza virus spread through air, through sneezing, and by touching a contaminated surface and then touching mouth or nose or eyes, one get infected from influenza virus.
After infection person get fever, headache, and running nose, person feel tired and feel weakness.
Mode of infection : Influenza virus get attached epithelial cells with consist of sialic acids rich oligosaccharides in lungs and respiratory track, and damage these cells which trigger release of tumor necrosis factors cytokinin, which further damage cells through the process of inflammation, damaged cells has increase risk of pneumococcal infection.
Why person infected with influenza feel tired and get body pain and headache ?
Level of Adencorticosteroid hormone, cortisol which are responsible for lowering of inflammatory conditions are is reduced in patients infected with influenza virus drastically, Processes of inflammatory responses are at higher level which decreases level of threshold of pain, inflammatory process are also responsible for aggravating conditions of pneumonia.
Blockage of nostrils with mucus develops secondary bacterial infections of upper respiratory tract causing pneumonia.
There are four types of influenza Viruses.
influenza Virus A, influenza Virus B, influenza Viruse C, influenza Virus D

Following types of drugs currently available to treat flu, Swine flu
1)      Neuraminidase inhibitors:
        (oseltamivir (Tamiflu), zanamivir, laninamivir and peramivir)
       Prevent virus attachment to cell.
2) ion channel (M2 protein ) Inhibitor.: (adamantane derivatives)
New class of drugs approved by US FDA is
    3) Baloxavir marboxil : Which is an CAP defendant endonuclease inhibitor drugs.
Influenza virus is a RNA virus it makes use of host cell for its replication, through mRNA   Transcription. Baloxavir marboxil blocks mRNA Transcription and protein synthesis of viral particles.

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