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Friday, February 18, 2022

Breast Cancer Vaccine prevent reoccurrence of barest cancer

Vaccine that prevent re-occurrence of barest cancer:
Mucin1 +Mannan (a type of sugar) complex when injected in to patient affected with breast cancer develops cellular immunity that prevents  reoccurrence of breast cancer.

Brest cancer is one of most life threatening disease responsible for loss of women’s lives worldwide. It accounts to about 29.1 % of the total cancers, and 13.7% of lives lost just because of barest cancer. With presently available treatments one can live a good quality life with early diagnosis and proper treatment but there is always threat of reoccurrence of cancer cells.

In order to prevent reoccurrence of breast cancer scientists have developed a vaccine that protected women from reoccurrence of breast cancer. In a clinical trial consisting of 31 women’s risk of reoccurrence was reduced from 60 % to just 12% over fifteen years.

The vaccine consist of Mucin1 protein conjugated with mannan a polymeric form of sugar mannose, mannan is found in in plant and yeasts. Mucin is glycosylated phosphoprotein which protect gastric lining from gastric acid. Over activation of mucin 1 prevents apoptosis (process of normal cell death in absence of which a normal cell becomes cancerous). 

When mucin1-Mannan is injected in patients it act as epitope, an antigen determinant, which is sensed by body cells imparting cellular immunity by T lymphocytes, B cells which identify abnormal reoccurring barest cancer cell where in mucin1 present and destroy them by various cytotoxic cellar immunity pathways like phagocytosis and releasing cytotoxic enzymes and peroxide moities.

Who are at higher risk of barest cancer?
1) Women’s with mutations in genes BRCA1 or BRCA2 and
2) Mutation in p53 (Li–Fraumeni syndrome), PTEN (Cowden syndrome), STK11 (Peutz–Jeghers syndrome), CHEK2, ATM, BRIP1, and PALB2.
3) Smoking tobacco
4) Alcohol intake
5) lack of physical activity
6) Diabetes mellitus increase the risk of breast cancer.
7) Dietary iodine deficiency
8) Diet with higher cholesterol and fat
9) Radiation
10) Chemicals, organic solvents ,pesticides polychlorinated biphenyls,

Which age is more susceptible:
Women’s in the age group of of 40 and 50 are at higher risk of breast cancer.

Is there complete treatment available for breast cancer?

Yes there is treatment available which can save live if breast cancer is detected early, treatment include
1) surgical removal of cancerous tissue
2) Monoclonal antibodies Trastuzumab
3) Chemotheapy with, cyclophosphamide with doxorubicin; cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil , taxane docetaxel.
4) Radiation therapy,
5) Hormone blocking drug therapy which include drug estrogen receptor blocker tamoxifen, estrogen production blocker aromatase inhibitor anastrozole and letrozole.

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