There are certain cells in our body known as stem cells can differentiate in to many different organ tissue cells and connective tissues (puripotent cells), which make stem cells one of great tool in regenerative medicine in fact it is looked as wonder medicine, stem cell derived from chord blood cell or bone marrow can differentiate in to , neural cell , liver cell, muscle cells or ostioblast (bone cells), blood corpuscles and so on eventually they can develop in to all types of organs and connective tissue cells, blood cells in human body.
Even stem cells are capable of rendering normal life to a patient affected with disorders like blood cancer and other degenerative diseases by virtue of replacing faulty tissue cells with normal cells originated through transplanted stem cells.
Stem cells develop in to a particular tissue basal cell which are called as pluripotent stem cells and progenitor cell which further develop in to cells of particular organ . This is one of our natural repair system of our body tissue. Stem cells can also be artificially grown in laboratory in to specific required tissue basal cells and injected in to damaged tissue where they bring repair of that damaged tissue, because this stem cells are used as source of regeneration of any damaged tissues or undeveloped tissues Or to bring about repair of an abnormal or the faulty tissue, as that in blood cancer.
Stem cells are classified in to two types
1) Embryonic stem cells are obtained from blastocysts (embryo)
2) Adult stem cells are present in all tissues.
Source of stem cells in human body:
Bone marrow and umbilical cord blood are main source of stem cells.
Cord blood stem cells:
Cord blood is a rich source of stem cells as well as hematopoietic cells , it is collected from the blood tissue in placental blood in umbilical cord after child birth, it is used in treatment of genetic disorders and hematopoietic disorders (blood disorders) as well as for regenerative therapies in tissue damages cord blood stem cells contains can be used to treat hematopoietic , degenerative disorders to some extent and genetic disorders.
Umbilical cord blood cells can be stored in cord blood stem cell banks, immediately after child birth, and can be used as a rich source of stem cells in future in event of any degenerative or hematopoietic disorders.
Adult stem cells are stem cells which are derived from the
Bone marrow stem cells mesenchymal:
Stroma in bone marrow consist of stem cells which are capable of differentiating in to basal cells (progenitor cell) of any organ or tissue in human body, and function as repair system in our body.
As the bone marrow stem cells also known as mesenchymal stem cells are capable of differentiating in to many different functional cells including osteoblasts (bone cells) which can develop in to particular tissues, therefore they are called as multipotent cells.
The cord blood stem cells are used to treat following disease
1) Hematological malignancies
2) Beta Thalassemia
3) Failure of Bone marrow
4) Adrenoleukodystropy Nerous system damage of mylin sheet damage to peripheral nerous system and adrenal gland.( X-linked Adrenoleukodystropy)
5) Inherited Immunodeficiency
6) Globoid Leukodystrophy
7) mucopolysaccharidosis type I disease a genetic disorder where there is lack of enzyme responsible for breakdown of mucopolysaccharides in lysosomes which gradualy results in glycosaminoglycans buildup and organ damage.
Why chord blood is stored or banked information about cord blood?
Stem cells are cells which when injected in to damaged tissue, can repair that damaged tissue even they can promote growth of a organ otherwise not completely developed.
Chord blood is one of rich source of such stem cells hence when stored with stem cell or chord blood cell banks which adapt special procedures, can help in future in event baby require any regenerative treatment, stem cells from obtained from chord blood are isolated and grown and injected in to body , which then can repair or bring about development of tissue, even in case of injuries they are found to be effectively curing serious injuries.
Cord blood is derived from blood in placental blood vessel and umbilical chord blood vessels .
If one don not use it for self chord blood cells can be donated to other needy patient or can be used by for child or his second degree relatives
In united state US FDA regulate chord blood cell banking, it has lay down regulation about qualification of donor , storage, handling and processing, recovery, manufacturing , distribution labeling and packaging of human cells, tissues and cellular and tissue-based products (HCT/Ps) and chord blood cell banks.Organisations or chord blood cell banks are required to be registered with US FDA, which in turn monitor their procedure and facility for compliance with requirements, banks which provide chord blood cell products are required to provide detail about manufacturing , processing and storage labeling and distribution donor qualification , which involves screening of donor for any genetic and viral diseases.
Regulatory aspects of human tissue cell products
In united states chord blood cell and similar cell therapy and tissue products are regulated through CFR 21 Part 1271.
Also following regulatory requirements are mandatory for human tissue and cell products.
1)Lableing as under 21 CFR Parts 201, and 610 Subpart G
2) Regulations for Prescription Drug Advertising as under 21 CFR Part 202
3) Current good manufacturing practices regulations as under 21 CFR Parts 210 and 21 CFR Part 211
4) General Regulations for Biological Products: 21 CFR Part 600 –; and
5) Regulation of General Biological Products Standards as under 21 CFR Part 610.
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