We all know that proteins are basic constituents of all living cells and many physiological processes are regulated with proteins.
All Proteins are synthesized in our body by a process known as transcription a process of transferring information about sequence of amino acid in a protein from nuclear DNA to messenger RNA and then m RNA leading to translation of protein.
Certain protein synthesis can be inhibited by bringing about inhibition of process of translation in protein synthesis such inhibition can be achieved by making a complementary RNA strand of mRNA translating specific protein these complementary RNA is called as Antisense RNA.
When Antisense RNA is injected in to living cells it is taken up by enzyme systems and ribosome’s competitively for mRNA , resulting in to binding and depleting the tRNA caring amino acids required for formation of a peptide.
This inhibition results in to depletion of an important protein which is a very important for growth of a cell , in such cases it result in to inhibition of growth of the cells or subsequent destruction of cell. In some cases a complete inhibition of a protein may be achieved to gain a beneficial physiological effect. However the inhibitory effect depends up on concentration on Antisense RNA.
Application of Antisense RNA as drug and medicine:
drug which makes use of antisense RNA technology is Fomivirsen (brand name Vitravene) it is the first drug approved by FDA which makes use of antisense RNA technique it is an antiviral drug used in treatment of viral infection in cases of patients with defective immune system including AIDS. Though the mode of action of Fomivirsen is by inhibition of DNA polymerase enzyme , which is different than that the mode of action of antisense RNA it is still make use of antisense RNA technology.
Fomivirsen is a oligonucleotide containing 21 nucleotide analogs where nucleotides are linked together through 3’ and 5” position of ribose sugar through phosphorothioate linkages.
Nucleotide analog sequence in fomivirsen is as follows 5'-GCG TTT GCT CTT CTT CTT GCG-3'.
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New drug development and application of antisense RNA:
Antisense RNA is used in study of new drugs. Researchers from National Institutes of Health USA and the University of Hong Kong have made use of antisense RNA to study role of a protein responsible for spreading cancerous cells , they have great outcomes which they have reported that if amount of this protein in tumor cells can be used in the judging likelihood of spreading cancerous cells after a surgery which can assist in initiation of early treatment which may prove life saving.
Also see application of nanotechnology in drug delivery system in anticancer drugs
There are lot of fields in medicine need to be looked, there are many diseases still awaiting a drug for treatment , antisense RNA technology may proved a hope for treatments for such diseases.
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