Purpose of attaching a polyethylene side chain is to render a molecule less immunogenic or to reduce the antigenecity of a theraputic protein which are derived from other animal or natural resources the process alters the solubility of the immunoglobuline and availability for drug molecule for renal clearance and reabsorbtion and hinders the antigenic sites on the protein molecule which otherwise produce a sever untoward anaphylactic reactions. PEGylation renders hydrophobic drug molecule or in to hydrophilic.
Many drug molecules are metabolized in our body with the process of conjugation with other protein molecules like glucouronide so as to render its clearance, such conjugation process renders the molecule lesser toxic , the process of peglytation can be related to such naturally occurring process in human body to render a drug molecule less toxic or less immunogenic, and alter the drug distribution in our body.
PEG polymer usualy reacts with hydroxyl groups on protein or drug molecules viz aldehyde, esters, amides and anhydrides, acid chlorides, chloroformates carbonates.
Drugs so far developed with PEGylation technology are as follows.
Enzon Pharmaceuticals Inc, US, was the first company to introduce PEGylation technology and drug
ADAGEN (PEG- bovine adenosine deaminase) was the first drug manufactured by them to get approved by US FDA in March 1990. ADAGEN is used to treat X-linked severe combined immunogenicity syndrome, as an option to enzyme replacement by gene therapy and bone marrow transplantation.
PEGASYS: PEGylated interferon alpha for treating chronic hepatitis C and hepatitis B
Schering-Plough / Enzon
Pegintron: PEGylated interferon for treating chronic hepatitis C and hepatitis B
Oncaspar: PEGylated L-asparaginase for treatmenting acute lymphoblastic leukemia for patients hypersensitive to unmodified L-asparaginase (Enzon).
Neulasta: PEGylated recombinant methionyl human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for treating neutropenia induced in cancer chemotherapy.
Ortho Biotech / Schering-Plough
Doxil/Caelyx: PEGylated liposome with doxorubicin for treating cancer.
Savient Pharmaceuticals Inc
Pegloticase to lower uric acid level in gout.---read more about this drug which is one of latest approved drug which manufactured by using PEGylation technology
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