PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS PHARMCY SUBJECTS,THEIR TOPICS AND TEXT BOOKS AND REFERANCE BOOKS
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1. Quality Assurance:
a. Introduction, sources of quality variation, control of quality variation.
b. Concept of statistical quality control.
c. Validation methods- quality of equipment, validation of equipment and validation of analytical instruments and calibration.
d. GLP, ISO 9000.
e. Total quality management, quality review and documentation.
f. ICH- international conference for harmonization-guidelines.
g. Regulatory control.
Introduction, history, classification, separation techniques, choice of methods. The following techniques be discussed with relevant examples of pharmaceutical products involving principles and techniques of separation of drugs from excipients.
a. Column Chromatography: Adsorption column chromatography, Operational
technique, frontal analysis and elution analysis. Factors affecting column efficiency,
applications and partition chromatography.
b. TLC: Introduction, principle, techniques, Rf value and applications.
c. PC: Introduction, principle, types of paper chromatography, preparation techniques,
development techniques, applications.
d. Ion-exchange chromatography: Introduction, principles, types of ion exchange
synthetic resins, physical properties, factors affecting ion exchange, methodology and
e. HPLC: Introduction, theory, instrumentation, and applications.
f. HPTLC: Introduction, theory, instrumentation, and applications.
g. Gas Chromatography: Introduction, theory, instrumentation-carrier gases, types of
columns, stationary phases in GLC & GSC. Detectors-Flame ionization detectors,
electron capture detector, thermal conductivity detector. Typical gas chromatogram,
derivatisation techniques, programmed temperature gas chromatography, applications.
h. Electrophoresis: Principles of separation, equipment for paper and gel electrophoresis,
i. Gel filtration and affinity chromatography: Introduction, technique, applications.
3. Electrometric Methods:
Theoretical aspects, instrumentation, interpretation of data/spectra and analytical applications be discussed on the following topics.
a. Potentiometry: Electrical potential, electrochemical cell, reference electrodes, indicator electrodes, measurement of potential and pH, construction and working of electrodes, Potentiometric titrations, methods of detecting end point, Karl Fischer titration.
b. Conductometry: Introduction, conductivity cell, conductometric titrations and applications.
c. Polarography: Instrumentation, DME, residual current, diffusion current and limiting current, polarographic wave, Ilkovic’s equation, Effect of oxygen on polarographic wave, Polarographic maxima and suppressors and applications.
d. Amperometric Titrations: Introduction, types of electrodes used, reference and indicator electrode, instrumentation, titration procedure, advantages and disadvantages of Amperometry over potentiometry. Pharma applications.
Theoretical aspects, instrumentation, elements of interpretation of data/spectra and
application of analytical techniques be discussed on:
a. Absorption Spectroscopy:
- Theory of electronic, atomic and molecular spectra. Fundamental laws of
photometry, Beer-Lambert’s Law, application and its deviation, limitation of Beer
law, application of the law to single and multiple component analysis, measurement
of equilibrium constant and rate constant by spectroscopy. Spectra of isolated
chromophores, auxochromes, batho-chromic shift, hypsochromic shift, hyperchromic
and hypochromic effect, effect of solvent on absorption spectra, molecular structure
and infrared spectra.
Instrumentation – Photometer, U.V.-Visible spectrophotometer – sources of U.V.-
Visible radiations, collimating systems, monochromators, samples cells and
following detectors-Photocell, Barrier layer cell, Phototube, Diode array,
applications of U.V.-Visible spectroscopy in pharmacy and spectrophotometric
- Infrared Spectroscopy: Vibrational transitions, frequency – structure correlations,
Infrared absorption bands, Instrumentation–IR spectro-meter – sources of IR,
Collimating systems, monochromators, sample cells, sample handling in IR
spectroscopy and detectors–Thermocouple, Golay Cells, Thermistor, Bolometer,
Pyroelectric detector, Applications of IR in pharmacy.
- Fluorimetric Analysis: Theory, luminescence, factors affecting fluorescence,
quenching. Instrumentation, Applications, fluorescent indicators, study of
pharmaceutically important compounds estimated by fluorimetry.
b. Flame Photometry: Theory, nebulisation, flame and flame temperature, interferences, flame spectrometric techniques and instrumentation and pharmaceutical applications.
c. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry: Introduction, Theory, types of electrodes,
instrumentation and applications.
d. Atomic Emission Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic sources, atomic emission spectrometers, photographic and photoelectric detection.
e. NMR ESR (introduction only): Introduction, theoretical aspects and applications.
f. Mass Spectroscopy: (Introduction only) – Fragmentation, types of ions produced mass spectrum and applications.
g. Polarimetry: (Introduction only) – Introduction to optical rotatory dispersion, circular
h. X-RAY Diffraction: (Introduction only) – Theory, reciprocal lattice concept,
diffraction patterns and applications.
i. Thermal Analysis: Introduction, instrumentation, applications, and DSC and DTA.
1. Separation and identification of Amino Acids by Paper Chromatography.
2. Separation and identification of Sulpha drugs by TLC technique.
3. Effect of pH and solvent on the UV spectrum of given compound.
4. Comparison of the UV spectrum of a compound with that of its derivatives.
5. Determination of dissociation constant of indicators using UV-Visible spectroscopy.
6. Conductometric titration of mixture of acids with a strong base.
7. Potentiometric titration of a acid with a strong base.
8. Estimation of drugs by Fluorimetric technique.
9. Study of quenching effect in fluorimetry.
10. Colourimetric estimation of Supha drugs using BMR reagent.
11. Simultaneous estimation of two drugs present in given formulation.
12. Assay of Salicylic Acid by colourimetry.
13. Determination of Chlorides and Sulphates in Calcium gluconate by Nepheloturbidimetric Method.
14. Determination of Na/K by Flame Photometry.
15. Determination of pKa using pH meter.
16. Determination of specific rotation.
17. Comparison of the IR spectrum of a compound with that of its derivatives.
18. Demonstration of HPLC.
19. Demonstration of HPTLC.
20. Demonstration of GC-MS.
21. Demonstration of DSC.
22. Interpretation of NMR spectra of any one compound.
1. Text Book of Pharm. Analysis by Higuchi. T and Hasen. E. B., New York Inter Science Publishers.
2. Quantitative Pharma. Analysis by Jenkins, The Blakiston division, New York.
3. Quantitative Drug Analysis, by Garrot. D, Chapman & Hall Ltd., London.
4. Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis by James. E., CBS Publishers.
5. Instrumental Analysis by Willard and Merritt, EWP, East West Press Ltd., Delhi/Madras.
6. Pharm Analysis by Skoog and West, Sounders Manipal College Publishing.
7. Text Book of Chemical Analysis, by A.I.Vogel, ELBS with Macmillan press, Hampshire.
8. Textbook of Pharm. Analysis by K.A.Connors, John Wiley & Sons, New York,
9. Textbook of Pharm. Analysis (Practical) by Beckett & Stenlake, CBS Publishers, Delhi.
10. Textbook of Drug Analysis by P.D. Sethi., CBS Publishers, Delhi.
11. Spectroscopy by Silverstein, John & Wiley & Sons. Inc., Canada & Singapore.
12. How to practise GMP-A Plan for total quality control by P.P. Sharma, Vandana
13. The Science & Practice of Pharmacy by Remington Vol-I & II, Mack Publishing Co.
14. TLC by Stahl, Spring Verlay.
15. Text Book of Pharm. Chemistry by Chatten, CBS Publications.
16. Spectroscopy by William Kemp, ELBS with Macmillan Press, Hampshire.
17. I.P.-1996, The Controller of Publications, New Delhi.
18. BPC- Dept. of Health, U.K. for HMSO.
19. USP - Mack Publishing Co., Easton, PA.
20. The Extra Pharmacopoeia – The Pharm. Press, London.
1 Study of agonistic and antagonistic effects of drugs using Guinea-pig ileum preparation.
2 To study the effects of drugs on intestinal motility using frog’s esophagus model
3 To study the effects of drugs using rat uterus preparation.
4 To study the anticonvulsant property of drugs (any one model).
5 To study antihistaminic property of drug using histamine induced anaphylactic reaction in guineapigs.
6 To study the apomorphine-induced compulsive behaviour (stereotypy) in mice.
7 To study the muscle relaxant property of diazepam in mice using rotarod apparatus.
8 To study the antiinflammatory property of indomethacin against carrageenan-induced paw oedema.
9 To study the anxiolytic effect of diazepam in mice using mirrored-chamber apparatus.
10 To demonstrate the effect of various drugs on the blood pressure and respiration of anaesthetized dog.
11 To study the effect of anthelmintics on earthworms.
12 To study the taming effect of chlorpromazine.
13 To study the effects of drugs on vas deferense of the male rat.
14 To study the effect of drugs on pesticide toxicity using rats as model.
15 To study the effect of drugs on heavy metal toxicity.
indicate major experiment & indicate minor experiment
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