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Tuesday, June 22, 2010

What is antibiotic resistance , how antibiotic resistance is developed , How antibiotic resistance is counteracted

What is antibiotic resistance , how antibiotic resistance is developed , How antibiotic resistance is counteracted
Antibiotics are substances which are produced by microorganisms , and are able to kill or stop growth of microorganisms completely , when they are present in minute concentrations, antibiotics posses very complex stereo chemical structures which are highly susceptible for degradation or alteration by numerous factors like enzymatic actions or effluxing out or removing out absobed antibiotic from microbial cell , resulting in to nullification of microbicidal or microbistatic actions of these antibiotics.
Enzymes or efflux pumps which brings about degradation or alteration or exclusion or removal of an antibiotic are mostly induced in to microbial or bacterial metabolic systems once these microbes come in contact with these antibiotic substances,this is one of the protective mechanism of microorganisms.These microorganisms then develop a resistance for a particular antibiotic with which these microorganisms were in contact , thus an antibiotic become little or less or inactive against these microorganisms.

Efflux Pumps in microorganisms:
This in an protective systems works with numerous feedback mechanisms of microorganisms, it can be defined simply as removing out any toxic substance out of microbial cell , this is a proteinacious transport system of microorganisms , these proteins tag to a toxic substance in bacterial cell, here it is an antibiotic and remove them out of bacterial cell through active transport , which involves supplementation of energy through break down of ATP (Adenosine triphosphate ) molecule.

Neumerous drugs do develop drug resistance due to the phenomenons listed above.
How antibiotic resistance is counteracted
So far there is not a single drug is available which has proved to be effective in clinical trials that it can prove to be effective as efflux modifier , and help antibiotic to cary out the desired action.

There are some enzyme inhibitors currently in use which are listed below


Beta-lactamase inhibitors:
Are the class of drugs which are given in conjugation with beta-lactam antibiotics.
These molecules do not have any antibiotic activity but they enhance the antimicrobial activity of beta-lactam antibiotics .
It is considered that beta-lactam antibiotics like penicillins and cephalosporins develop resistance as some microorganisms produce an enzyme beta-lactamase which casues breakdown of this beta lactam ring in betalactum antibiotics this betalactum ring is a piculiar characteristic of betalactum antibiotics.

1.Clavulanic acid and its slt with potassium , potassium clavulanate is formulated along with amoxicillin.

2.Sulbactam is formulated with cefoperazone and ampicillin
sulbactum binds with betalactumase irreversibly there by protecting actual antibiotics from anzymatic degradation.
3.Tazobactam is also a beta-lactamase inhibitor it is formulated with piperacillin

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http://whoguideline.blogspot.com/2010/04/terminalogy-and-their-explanations.html

Pharmaceutical Aseptic Manufacturing Process Terms , Terminology and Definations.

http://whoguideline.blogspot.com/2010/02/pharmaceutical-aseptic-manufacturing.html

Here are some articles which will be useful for you in further understanding of aspects of sterile dosage form manufacturing and regulatory affairs and good manufacturing practice in pharmaceutical industry

Pharmaceutical Validation

Types of validations in pharmaceutical manufacturing


Requirements of documents for validation of sterilisation process

How to investigate OOS out of specification results

Determination of Phenol coeeficient of a disinfectant

Sterility testing

Cleen Room Classification

Time limitations in sterile pharmaceuticals processing

Aspects of validation of manufacturing process in sterile pharmaceuticals

Clinical Trials

Controling Pyrogens in injectable dosage forms

Media fill run process simulation aspects Validation of Aseptic Process and Sterilisation

New Drug Application (NDA) how to make a New Drug Application (NDA) to US FDA

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BIOAVAILABILITY AND BIOEQUIVALENCE REQUIREMENTS

Eletronic record in pharmaceutical manufacturing industry

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Here is an intresting article on world wide pharmaceutical industry
Article on Pharmaceutical Industry pharmaceutical industry

Here are some interesting articles on Quality assurance systems for pharmaceutical company
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2.Quality by designe concept for pharmaceutical industry
3.Quality by designe concept in pharmaceutical industry an  explanation

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