There are millions of peoples around the world suffering from diabetes ,in many instance patients has to depend on regular dose of insulin injection, which is not as painful as that of intramuscular injection but it is enough painful to a person observing the process.
Formulation of inhalable insulin are already in existence first of its kind was developed and marketed by Aventis and Pfizer under the brand name Exubera , it is a inhalable form of insulin drug delivery system.
In these days scientists were focused to develop a transdermal or nasal drug delivery systems for delivery of insulin peptide.
Why insulin can not be taken in oral dosage form:
As you may be aware that insulin is a peptide and is highly susceptible for degradation in gastric as well as intestinal environment and from activity of proteolytic enzymes , which are the part of digestive system.
Therefore intranasal delivery system was one of the choice for researchers.
Now there are many hopes that the molecule is formulated in to nanoparticles , and is made available to treat patients .
How nanoparticles of insuline formulated:
They are nothing but nano emulssions particles which encapsulate , forms a complex which protects and caries insuline molecule, the surrounding core of the nano particle consist of emulsifying and stabilising agents.
These agents enhance the stability and absorbtion of insuline molecule throuh nasal septum.
Most successful agents studied were 1.Chitosan 2.Beta cyclodextrin.
Chitosan is a polysaccharide consisting β-(1-4)-linked D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine , Chitosan is produced commercially from deacetylation of chitin obtained from fish, shrimp and other sea crustaceans.
The D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine chain impart this molecule unique property to form a layered complex with number of peptides and other organic and inorganic chemicals.
It is used in biotechnology in gene therapy chitosan is capable of delivering a gene in to desired location precisely.
2.Cyclodextrins : Is a group of cyclic oligosaccharides molecules , cyclodextrin molecules piculiarly form a ring of sugar molecules ,
α -cyclodextrin consist of six sugar ring molecule
β -cyclodextrin consist of seven sugar ring molecule
γ -cyclodextrin consist of eight sugar ring molecule
Cyclodextins have a property to form a complex with hydrophobic as well as peptide molecules , its use to formulate insulin molecule for transdermal delivery is studied in many universities and pharmaceutical companies around the world.
Other effective way to enhance effect of indigenous insulin :
In recent studies it was found that Cinnamon ( Cinnamomum cassia ) when eaten raw in form of very small piece after meals enhance the ability of indigenous insulin to mobilize blood sugar in to the tissue, in diabetes patients.
This is because of stimulation of cellular surfaces where insulin receptors located and ar are responsible for action of insulin molecule; this treatment should not be compromised over regular medication as it may not work in certain age group of patients where insulin production in there body is not enough to respond to this treatment, also it’s complete effectiveness clinical trials going on to evaluate the efficacy of Cinnamon as one of the protective therapy in early stage of diabetes.
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